The Lim lab studies interactions and evolution
of the human virome in development and immunity.

We are particularly interested in understanding

  • how the virome shapes the trajectory of infant development,

  • how metagenomic changes induced by immunosuppression affect transplant outcome, and

  • how viruses antagonize the host immune defense.





We study the role of the virome and microbiome on mother-infant health.

Our focus is on early life events that shape healthy infant development, transmission of the virome and bacterial microbiome from mother to infant, and the impact of HIV disease on mother-infant dynamics. 

This research will be used to chart the
microbiome milestones of development.


Transplant Disease

We study the impact of the virome on BK disease in kidney transplant patients.

Our working hypothesis is that alterations in the virome and bacterial microbiome are driven by functional immunocompetence. This research has broad implications for other transplant diseases and immunotherapy treatments.

This will be used in precision medicine that personalizes the prevention and treatment of diseases to individuals. 


VirAl Antagonists

We study how viral antagonists counteract the host immune defense and
how they counter-evolve to new hosts.

We are particularly interested in characterizing novel viruses to study
host-virus interactions.    


Efrem Lim, PhD

Assistant Professor
Arizona State University
School of Life Sciences
Biodesign Institute
Center for Fundamental and Applied Microbiomics

Email: Efrem.Lim[at]

We are proudly funded by:


Arizona State University

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)

NIH: The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)